How to rmmod hostap driver?

Jouni Malinen jkmaline at
Sun Dec 19 10:35:20 EST 2004

On Sun, Dec 19, 2004 at 12:01:48PM +0800, zhaoming wrote:

> So is there anyone know how to remove modules which is still working  from the kernel? 
> I use hostap as a module in linux-2.6.2.

By setting the interfaces down first or in case of hostapd_cs, 'cardctl
eject' works, too.

> Then I try to rmmod hostap_cs ,I encounter this:
> [root at oracleas root]# rmmod hostap_cs
> ERROR: Module hostap_cs is in use

If the network interfaces are up, the module cannot be unloaded for a

> If I rmmod -f hostap_cs , the linux-2.6.2 will crash .After I
> restart the box,I cannot load the hostap module.But the pcmcia card 
> is OK.

See 'man rmmod' and comments about -f option being extremely dangerous..

Jouni Malinen                                            PGP id EFC895FA

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